Boron is the fifth chemical element in the periodic table. Boron is considered to be a rare element as it is not abundantly present on the earth. Boron which is naturally occurring is dissolved in the water. The chemical and physical properties of the elements placed in the same group are somewhat similar. The two common forms of boron which are present in the environment are borax and kernite. Borax is used in many synthetic products. It is extensively used in the ceramic and glass industry as it is considered to be a strengthening substance. Few isotopes of boron are also seen in the environment. All these isotopes have their own function and importance. Commercially, boron is used in different pesticides and insecticides. Boron is toxic for arthropods, and its use for mammals is considered safe. Boron also has an antimicrobial effect, and that’s why it is used in few antibiotics. Boron is found naturally in many plants and vegetables. Boron is not abundantly present in the earth’s crust. Traces of boron are also found in apples, carrots, spinach ad few whole grains. Other than this boron is present in fruits and vegetables Prunes, grapes, dates, pears, grains, soybeans, almonds, unprocessed honey and other nuts. Boric acid is the most common form of the boron. Boric acid was used by many quacks in the ancient times for washing eyes. Boric acid was also used by many local healers for treating epilepsy. Boron is also considered to be an essential element for the body. It is the element of great importance because it helps in the synthesis of vitamin D in the body.
Naturally, boron is also seen in the cell walls of the plant and provides strength to the cell structure. Traces of boron are present in the human body and are considered to be essential for proper functioning of the body. The name boron is having Arabic and Persian origin. The crystals of boron have different colors, it may be of yellow to dark brown in color. Boron was considered to be an element in 1824. The element was produced in the laboratory by an American scientist. Boron is somewhat similar to carbon if we consider its bond forming activity. Boron in its crystalline form is of black color and have a very high melting point. Boron is not much studied because it is extremely difficult to synthesize boron in the laboratory. Boron is a less reactive element and does not readily react with air or water. In some cases at high temperature it may react with air to form boron trioxide. Boron is present in the environment as a compound with several different elements. Mostly, boron combines with oxygen and is available as a gas in the air. Boron nitride is present as a crystalline substance in the environment. Many organoboron compounds are discovered until now. All these organoboron compounds are useful in the synthesis of organic compounds. Boron has 13 isotopes and it is abundantly present in the sea water. Turkey is considered to be the one with the greatest reserves of boron. Boric acid is sometimes found in the volcanic eruptions. Boric acid is also used in making optic fibers. Boron can be prepared by adding a hydrogen ion with boron halides. Boron contains natural antibiotic boromycin in it. Boron is essential for the normal plant growth. Boron is considered to be essential for the formation of the cell wall in the plants. If the plant is deficient in boron its leaves do not grow properly. Boron is also very essential for the proper hair growth in different mammals. Boron is also used in several biochemical processes which are occurring in the human body. Boron is found to have a synergistic effect with calcium. These both elements when combined can help in reducing the process of osteoporosis.