CILTEP® Ingredient list
One of the main ingredients in CILTEP is premium quality extract from the leaves of the artichoke plant. Artichoke extract has been used since ancient times for its multiple health benefits; long before its nootropic properties became known. The main bioactive phytochemicals in artichoke extract are caffeylquinic acids, which include luteolin. The artichoke extract used in CILTEP is standardised to contain 5% caffeylquinic acids.
The cognition and memory enhancing properties of artichoke extract come from the fact that luteolin is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4). It therefore inhibits the enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is a potent second messenger that transduces the signals of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters from outside the cell to the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Specifically cAMP is involved in long-term potentiation (LTP), and elevating cAMP levels can chemically induce LTP. Since LTP is the mechanism used by brain neurones to store memories. Luteolin from artichoke extract therefore improves learning, cognition and long-term memory. Especially when taken together with inducers of cAMP synthesis, such as foreskolin, with which it works synergistically.
Photodiesterase inhibitors have been shown in studies on animals to improve brain function and memory. They also have a neuro-protective role, and are being investigated as possible novel anti-depressents.
Other than the nootropic effect caffeylquinic acids have many potential health benefits, such as lowering of cholesterol and plasma triglyceride levels. They also have anti-oxidant action protecting the body from free radical damage, protect the liver and blood vessel integrity and soothe the stomach.
No negative side effects have been reported from taking artichoke extract, either on its own for general health or as part of the CILTEP stack. It is highly probable that this all natural nootropic is totally safe. Although not enough research has been done on interactions with prescription medication, so care should be taken, and medical advice sought if combining it with other drugs.
Coleus foreskohlii Extract
Extract from the root of the Coleus foreskohlii plant has been used in Asian traditional medicine for centuries to treat a variety of coditions. The active phytochemical is foreskolin, and the extract used in CILTEP is standardised to 20% active ingredient, so that each dose of CILTEP (3 pills) contains 4 mg of foreskolin. The phytochemical has the ability to increase the levels of cAMP in neurons by activating adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that produces cyclic AMP from ATP. IN CILTEP Coleus extract works in synergy with artichoke extract to induce long-term potentiation, and therefore enhance learning and memory.
Being a completely natural ingredient, foreskolin appears to be tolerated well. There are no reports of adverse reactions to people taking Coleus extract.
L-Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, one of the building blocks of proteins. Human bodies cannot synthesise it and it is one of nine amino acids that must be obtained from the diet.
L-Phenylalanine is also the precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. In the body it becomes converted to another amino acid, L-tyrosine. L-tyrosine then undergoes conversion to L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine dehydroxylase. L-DOPA is the direct precursor of dopamine, and becomes converted to dopamine inside neurons in the brain (L-DOPA can cross the blood/brain barrier but dopamine cannot).
CILTEP is supplemented with L-Phenylalanine since the increased concentration of cAMP lead to the activation of the CREB protein, which in turn increases the expression of the tyrosine dehydroxylase gene. Hence one of the side effects of CILTEP is increasing neurons’ capacity for the synthesis of dopamine. Dopamine acts in the reward system of the brain, and increasing its concentration is associated with increased energy levels, mental focus and determination to achieve one’s goals.
ALCAR (acetyl L-carnitine) is the acetylated form of another amino acid, carnitine. It is added to the CILTEP stack due to its ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. One of the effects of the elevated cAMP levels caused by foreskolin, is an increase in the amount of acetylcholinesterase. If left uncorrected this would lead to a reduction in the levels of acetylcholine, with decreased energy levels and negative effects on short-term memory. The addition of ALCAR mitigates the increase in ACHE levels, by inhibiting the excess enzyme, leaving acetylcholine levels at their optimum.
Vitamin B6 is an essential water-soluble vitamin in the B-complex. It acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism. It is added to the CILTEP nootropic stack since it is a cofactor for the enzyme DOPA carboxylase, which catalyses the last reaction in the synthesis of dopamine. Since one of the side effects of CILTEP is to increase the neurons’ capacity for the synthesis of dopamine, which increases mental focus and determination, vitamin B6 aids in using up that extra capacity. It is important to note that CILTEP increases dopamine levels in a very natural way, without interfering or altering with its metabolism.