Manganese is derived from a Latin word ‘Magnes’ meaning magnetic, it is because when other metals are alloyed with manganese they become magnetic. Manganese citrate is another very important mineral which is required for the proper functioning of the human body. Manganese was discovered as an element in the 18th century. It was first formed by reducing manganese dioxide using carbon. Manganese is present in pure form and compounds with other minerals are also seen in the nature. Pyrolsite and rhodochriste are the most common manganese containing compounds. Manganese is present naturally in the soil and the greatest source of manganese is considered to be present on the ocean floors. Few countries of the world also keep huge reservoirs of manganese. Brazil and Russia are the largest manganese producing countries, whereas India and Australia are also considered to be rich in manganese. Manganese is also imported by many countries which are having less reserves of manganese. Manganese is somewhat used in the manufacturing of steel. The greatest amount of manganese is reserved under the ocean. The lava which erupts under the ocean is a great source of manganese. Manganese is most commonly reduced by reducing magnesium with sodium. Another method of producing manganese is through electrolysis.
The purest form of manganese is present in other allotropic forms. Some of these allotropic forms are stable at room temperature and few of them may readily react with water. Mostly manganese is considered to be soft and easy to cut. Manganese metal is normally gay- white in color and it resembles with iron. Manganese is harder than the iron and is also very brittle. Manganese is chemically very reactive and readily forms different compounds after reacting with other metals. It reacts readily but decomposes slowly in the water. Manganese has great affinity toward the water molecule. Manganese is used for producing highly ferromagnetic compounds. Manganese is very good oxidizing agent. Its presence in the environment and in the human body makes it more important. Manganese is also considered to be the internal part of the human body. Traces of manganese are present in bones, kidneys, liver and pancreas. Manganese is helpful in forming different important organs in the human body. Manganese is a key agent in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Manganese is also a key component of antioxidant enzymes which are present in the human body. These antioxidant enzymes help the body by removing the free radicals from the cells. Free radicals occur naturally in the human body and they can damage the cell membrane and DNA. Manganese is also present in different food items. Rich dietary sources of manganese include: nuts and seeds, wheat germ and whole grains, legumes, and pineapples. Few varieties of grains are considered to have a greater amount of manganese in them. Manganese is available in different forms. Its salts and citrate are seen very commonly in the nature. Naturally occurring manganese is hard and brittle. In a few cases it could be harder than the iron. Some forms of manganese are very soft and can be sliced. Manganese can be produced synthetically. The synthetically produced manganese is used for imparting color to different products. Often manganese is used in the glass industry for imparting color to the glass. Manganese is found in the number of minerals of different chemical and physical properties. Manganese is also present in the bones as it is considered to be supporting agent for the bones. In a few cases manganese is responsible for the normal production of hormones in the human body. Manganese imparts different colors to other metals. These colored metals are used for making different products. Manganese also provides strength to the metals and it is also found to be an essential element in the battery making industry