A Thermogenic Fat Burner:  the most powerful slimming formula!

XBrain’s Thermogenic Fat Burner contains all natural ingredients that support thermogenesis for maximum weight-loss.  Thermogenesis simply means the production of heat and in this case in the body.  Thermogenesis is the major way of producing body heat and regulating body temperature.  One way of generating body heat (thermogenesis) is through shivering genesis which occurs when you are cold.  Your brain activates your skeletal muscles and causes them to contract which in turn breaks many chemical bonds in the process.  The breaking of chemical bonds releases energy in the form of heat.  You can also generate heat by oxidizing fatty acids found in adipose cells (fat cells) and in the blood.  This has the end result of creating heat in the body.  This increase in temperature increases metabolic rate.  Generally speaking, a lack of thermogenesis is often found in overweight people.  It is reported that sluggish thermogenesis is responsible for 90 percent of obesity cases. 

Whether you’re looking to lose weight or are trying to build lean muscle such as a body builder, there are a number of ways you can go.  There are various pharmaceuticals that can be used with or without a prescription and there are natural supplements that contain whole foods.  For those of you who want to avoid adverse side effects, whole food natural supplements make excellent thermogenic fat burners.  Scientific formulations that are designed around powerful whole food extracts have excellent thermogenic fat burning properties with the added advantage of carrying appetite suppressant components.  Once fat stores have been mobilized and broken down, these by-products can be used to generate energy in the form of ATP.  So, you’ll not only lose unwanted fat stores but you will feel energized while you’re do it.  Studies are are now demonstrating the underlying mechanisms of weight issues as well as providing information on nutritional therapies such as using African mango, caffeine, cinnamon and raspberry ketones and how these thermogenic botanicals are safe and effective to help you achieve your long-term weight management.  Whether you’re a body builder or perhaps getting older and need assistance managing your weight, the botanicals found in XBrain’s Thermogenic Fat Burner supplement contain some of the most powerful heati generating ingredients providing for  the greatest slimming effect. 

The components in XanoreX Thermogenic Fat Burner that are known to burn fat (thermogenic) include
African mango, Aurantium, raspberry ketones, green tea, capsicum, Guarana, and caffeine.  These components act synergistically for maximum fat burning benefit providing for high fat burning strength with rapid results.  African mango also contains appetite suppressors by regulating hormone levels such as leptin and adiponectin which in turn prevent weight regain providing for long-term benefits.  Aurantium  contains appetite suppressors as well working synergistically with African mango.  Green tea not only burns fat but it also blocks fat absorption.  Cinnamon regulates glucose utilization and insulin production keeping blood sugar levels healthy and providing energy to run metabolic pathways.  Chromium picolinate also regulates glucose metabolism and works synergistically with cinnamon.  Acai has been added because of its high antioxidant content to aid in elimination of toxins, thereby, increasing healthy metabolism.  Medical experts point out that a great deal of obesity and weight gain can be attributed to imbalances in certain hormones and the build up of toxins and undigested wastes.  Toxins alter vital metabolic and glandular functions providing for a predisposition towards weight gain.   

Apple cider vinegar improves digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut and supports thermogenesis.  Siberian ginseng and L-tyrosine have been included along with kelp to support thyroid function to regulate and maintain healthy metabolism to assist in long-term weight management.   

The whole idea is to combine ingredients that contain thermogenic properties that work synergistically  to promote the most powerful slimming capability.  To support this you need to have ingredients that increase metabolic rate and balance hormone levels that control metabolic rate so you keep burning fat for long-term weight management.

Antioxidants are important for combating free radicals to keep metabolic pathways uncluttered and running smoothly which also promotes longevity.  Ingredients that promote digestion and absorption of nutrients is beneficial as well as this promotes fat burning and hence weight loss.  Ingredients of this type support building lean muscle mass and elevate energy levels for the long-term.  Keep in mind that          

maintaining a healthy weight is important to prevent health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, loss of brain function and premature aging. 

Listed below are all the botanicals found in XBrain’s Thermogenic Fat Burner along with the bioactive components within each botanical and how these bioactive components work in the body.  XBrain’s Thermogenic fat burner is contained within a vegetable cellulose capsule which is suitable for vegans.

African Mango (from extract)

African mango (Irvingia gabonesis) contains ingredients that accelerate fat burning while preventing new fat from being made and stored.  African mango has the ability to lower bad cholesterol levels, boost the immune system, reduce inflammation, balance blood sugar levels and provide energy.  Clinical trials have demonstrated that 300mg of African Mango extract accelerates weight loss. 

African mango contains appetite suppressors that boost leptin levels.  Leptin is a hormone that decreases appetite.  This fruit increases the production of adiponectin which helps to burn stored fat increasing fat metabolism.  When stored fat is metabolized and released into blood, this supplies an energy source to combat fatigue.  All of these factors contribute to weight loss naturally and permanently.

In a clinical trial, patients taking African mango were reported to lose and average of 28 pounds over a ten week period while the control group lost none.  The patients also lowered their cholesterol  and sugar levels.

Leptin and Adiponectin

Leptin is a protein hormone that is released from fat cells and then enters the blood stream.  Leptin signals the hypothalamus in the brain to alter food intake and control energy utilization over the long term.  This hormone has a profound effect when we lose weight and levels of leptin decrease.  This increases appetite and increases food intake.  This hormone exists to help maintain our normal weight and unfortunately for some dieters, makes it hard to those some extra pounds.  But, there’s more to the story. 

As leptin is produced by fat cells, how much leptin you have (and release) is directly related to the amount of body fat you have.  A person with more fat will have more leptin circulating in blood.  So, leptin blood levels increase if you increase your body fat over time and, similarly, leptin hormone levels decrease if you decrease your body fat over time.  But, the plot thickens.

If you are over weight, you will have high concentrations of leptin.  In some over weight individuals, the brain doesn’t respond to leptin so they keep over eating even though they have excess body fat.  This is referred to as “leptin resistance”.  The result of this to to produce more leptin.  This is in part due to high levels of C-reactive protein (CPR).  CPR has the ability to bind to leptin inhibiting its effectiveness.  Components in African mango have the ability to decrease levels of CPR allowing leptin to do the work it was meant to do.  That is, decrease appetite and maintain normal weight.      

Components in African Mango are believed to increase the production of adiponectin.  Adiponectin is another hormone that increases your cell’s sensitivity to insulin, thereby, increasing glucose and fat metabolism.  By increasing fat metabolism and converting fat into energy (ATP), weight loss results.

Green Tea (from extract, 99% Poly.)

Green tea has so many health benefits including boosting the immune system, increase focus and memory, combats the aging process, promotes oral health and increases energy levels.  But, were you aware that it can help you loose weight?  Green tea has the ability to burn fat and block fat absorption.

Fat and sugars you take in the diet are synthesized into triglycerides in the small intestine and liver.  These triglycerides are then carried throughout the body to other tissues to be used as an energy source.  When you have excess triglycerides around, they are converted into fat and stored in adipose tissue causing you to gain weight.

Green tea contains high concentrations of polyphenols that have the ability to activate an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides.  Over the long haul, green tea helps to maintain normal weight by breaking down fat.  The polyphenols (catechins) are also powerful antioxidants that account for many of the health benefits of green tea.  Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been reported to stimulate metabolism and increase fat loss.   EGCG and caffeine found in green tea stimulate the central nervous system which in turn causes fat to be released from adipose tissue and enter into blood.  This fat can be used to generate ATP through aerobic respiration to supply energy to the body/brain.  When the body uses fat to generate energy, this is referred to as thermogenesis.    Caffeine and EGCG work synergistically to generate thermogenesis.   Since catechin polyphenols stimulate fat burning by liver and muscle cells, this decreases the rate to which carbohydrates are used which in turn boosts endurance allowing for longer exercise times.      

Acai Berry (from extract)

Acai berry contains carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, C, calcium, aspartic acid and glutamic acid.  It also contains oleic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid.  Acai also contains beta-sitosterol and polyphenols such as procyanidins, vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid.

Acai contains detoxifying agents and promotes good blood circulation and increases energy levels thereby combating fatigue.  Acai components help to decrease cholesterol levels and increase metabolic rate getting rid of excess body fat.  It enhances the immune system, muscle and bone strength as well as support vision.

Capsicum (from extract)

Capsicum comes from hot peppers and is responsible for a number of health benefits including weight loss.  Capsicum annuum contains capsaicinoids, primarily capsaicin as well as vitamins A and C, and flavonoids such as carotenoids (plant pigments that have powerful antioxidant properties).

University research on animals and humans has demonstrated that capsaicin increases heat production for a short period and regulates blood sugar levels by affecting the breakdown of carbohydrates after ingestion which suggests capsicum (capsaicin) would be useful in treating obesity. 

One study on humans in the Netherlands demonstrated that subjects given capsaicin with meals increased their satiety and energy expenditure and decreased their appetite.  Another study in animals fed a high-fat diet but supplemented with capsaicin lowered their leptin and blood sugar levels.  Leptin is a protein hormone that suppress appetite.  These researchers concluded that capsaicin may reduce obesity-induced glucose intolerance by decreasing inflammation and promoting fatty acid oxidation, thereby, improving insulin resistance.

Another human study in Canada found that adding red pepper to meals increased diet-induced thermogenesis (heat production) and lipid oxidation.  Lipid oxidation refers to burning of fat for energy.  Capsaicin is known to stimulate gastric secretions and raise metabolic rate which in turn burns fat faster.  These effects have been reported to last for hours after you ingest capsaicin.  Capsaicin is also reported to inhibit fat cell growth by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-K).  This enzyme is found in muscle and other tissues and regulates eating behaviors and energy expenditure.  It also stimulates liver and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, thereby, releasing fatty acids for energy production. 

There is some correlation between taking in capsaicin and a decrease in weight regain.  Capsaicin has the ability to shift substrate oxidation from carbohydrate oxidation to fat oxidation.  That means instead of breaking down carbohydrates to make ATP, you break down fats to make ATP, switching to fat burning to make energy effectively conserving carbohydrate stores for later.  This in turn leads to a decrease in appetite and hence less food intake.  Both oral and gastrointestinal exposure to capsaicin decreases appetite and reduces energy as well as fat intake.  Oral exposure seems to have greater influence suggesting there are sensory effects involved (alters brain function directly).   

Other research has discovered that glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were down regulated by capsaicin which resulted in reduction in glycolytic activity and less overall fat synthesis.  Capsaicin has also been reported to influence TNF-alpha  (tumor necrosis factor – alpha) behavior.  The gene for TNF-alpha is commonly over expressed in many fat cells.  The TNF-alpha gene was over expressed in rats that were fed high-fat diets.  When the rats were administered capsaicin, TNF-alpha expression decreased significantly.

Cinnamon (from extract)

Cinnamon is believed to be effective in treating a number of health conditions including controlling blood sugar levels, cholesterol and enhancing weight loss.  This plant is native to Bangladesh, India and Nepal and the bark is rich in volatile oils which include cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and trans-cinnamic acid.  It also contains phenolic compounds such as tannins, catechins and proanthocyanidins as well as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. 

The essential oils in cinnamon have the ability to activate insulin receptors mimicking insulin, thereby, controlling blood sugar levels.

The volatile oil hydroxycinnamaldehyde helps to decrease inflammation which has been linked to an increased risk of obesity.  Cinnamon reduces harmful blood lipid levels also associated with being over-weight.  Cinnamon’s powerful antioxidants reduce oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome also linked to obesity.    

Studies done on mice have demonstrated that cinnamon extract regulates glucose and insulin-signaling gene activity in fat cells.  Another study found that rats with insulin resistance fed a high-fructose diet but also given cinnamon extract were able to respond to and utilize blood sugar the same way normal rats can.  A study done on 60 human volunteers in Pakistan with type 2 diabetes found that less than half a teaspoon of cinnamon per day reduced their blood sugar levels. 

L-Tyrosine (vege sourced)

L-tyrosine is a precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine as well as to the adrenal hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine.  Although it is not an essential amino acid as it can be made from the amino acid phenylalanine, having more of it around can increase hormone and neurotransmitter production.  This has the effect of increasing mental alertness, sense of well being by offsetting depression and delay physical fatigue.  L-tyrosine is important to athletes, the obese and overweight as well as the aging population.

L-tyrosine also influences the manufacture of thyroxine by the thyroid gland which is involved with regulating metabolic rate and because of this, L-tyrosine may prove effective for weight loss.

Guarana (from extract, 22% caffeine)

The bioactive components in Guarana are guaranine, theobromine and theophylline.  One of Guarana’s components is very similar in structure to caffeine and shares many of the same effects in the body.  This botanical also contains tannins which traditionally have been used as a diarrhea therapy.  Since one of Guarana’s components is almost identical to the structure of caffeine, it stimulates the central nervous system and increases metabolism making it a good candidate for promoting weight loss.  Athletes often combine Guarana with ginseng because they act synergistically to produce energy.

Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine is a stimulant that has the ability to kick start your fat burning metabolism by boosting thermogenesis by increasing lipolysis (fat burning).  It increases your energy and keeps you awake.  Caffeine anhdyrous is caffeine without water and often found in weight-loss products.   

Caffeine has the ability to boost fat metabolism by helping fat cells release free fatty acids (lipolysis) into the blood stream.  The breaking of bonds generates thermogenesis or heat which speeds up metabolic processes.  The release of fatty acids will be used to generate ATP which will be used to run metabolic pathways.  

Caffeine is also used by bodybuilders as a form of biohacking.  Caffeine has the ability to bind to mTor (mammalian Target of rapamycin).  This is an enzyme that is found inside the cytosolic space of many cells, however, it is particularly important to skeletal muscle cells.  mTor has many functions but an important one involves turning on protein synthesis.  This internal enzyme is involved with turning genes on and off making it a part of a signal transduction pathway.  Bodybuilders take in energy drinks and high protein drinks/bars etc. along with caffeine.  The caffeine binds to mTor inhibiting it temporarily essentially turning off protein synthesis while the enzyme’s substrates are building up inside the cell (amino acids from the protein drink).  You might think, why would you want to this if you want to bulk up.  Well, when the caffeine wears off, the enzyme goes into a rebound and works overtime producing more protein than it would otherwise.  In fact, this helps bodybuilders to recover faster from their workouts as well as build lean muscle.

Citrus Aurantium powder

The bioactive component in citrus Aurantium responsible for weight-loss is synephrine.  Synephrine aids in fat loss, suppress appetite and may alleviate depression.  Synephrine is an adrenergic amine and is a natural alternative to ephedrine for maximum weight-loss without side effects.  Synephrine binds to specific receptors on the surface of fat cells which increases the rate at which fat stores are released from fat tissue (lipolysis), thereby, increasing metabolic rate.

Although synephrine has a similar chemical structure to ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine it functions differently.  Synephrine is a semi-selective sympathomimetic meaning it binds to fatty tissues more than other cells such as heart cells.  On the other hand, ephedra is a non-selective sympathomimetic meaning that it binds to many tissues and hence side-effects.  Ephedra has been reported to cause cardiovascular side effects such as increases blood pressure and heart palpitations.  Research has demonstrated that synephrine targets fat tissue rather than heart and has no effect on hemodynamics.Synephrine has a relatively unique method of generating weight loss.  It is an agonist of the alpha (1)adrenoreceptor which it involved with a number of physiological processes.  In adipose tissue, this receptor modulates intracellular calcium and protein kinase C levels and glycogenolysis and lactate production.  Alpha (1) agonists have the ability to increase lipolysis in a number of experimental designs including human experiments.  This effect is increased by beta receptor stimulation, adenosine antagonism and elevated cAMP levels.  This suggests that ephedrine, caffeine and forskolin may be synergistic with synephrine.  Appetite suppression that is thought to be caused by some of these agents is due to alpha (1) agonism.   All of this suggests that synephrine can aid in fat loss program.

Raspberry Ketones

Raspberry ketones are phenolic compounds known for their pungent flavor/smell and are sIt is important to look for a supplement that has fat burning strength, rapid results, long-term benefits with quality of ingredients.  You want to look for an all-natural formulation that suppresses appetite, burns fat, increases metabolism, balances hormonal levels preventing weight regain, eliminates harmful toxins, suppresses depression (elevates mood) and elevates energy levels.  Medical experts point out that a great deal of obesity and weight gain can be attributed to imbalances in certain hormones and the build up of toxins and undigested wastes.  Toxins alter vital metabolic and glandular functions providing for a predisposition towards weight gain.

Ingredients such as African mango, green tea, Acai, capsicum, cinnamon, Guarana, caffeine, Aurantium, raspberry ketones, Siberian ginseng, kelp, apple cider vinegar and chromium picolinate provide an excellent combination of thermogenic fat burners that work synergistically to suppress appetite, burn fat, increase metabolism, balance hormone levels, eliminate toxins, build lean muscle mass and elevate energy levels.  They contain powerful antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress and lipolytic agents that release fats from adipose cells (thermogenic) to increase energy levels, thereby raising metabolic levels.Maintaining a healthy weight is important to prevent health issues such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease and maintain longevity. 

(break down fats).  A number of experiments have been done on all these compounds in rats fed high-fat diets and in in vitro fat cells (in a petri dish). Researchers report that raspberry ketones decrease the amount of fat in liver and visceral (abdominal) tissues in mice.  Researchers have also observed that these keytones have the ability to increase norepinephrine-induced lipolysis (breakdown of fat) in some rat fat cells.  The researchers concluded the raspberry ketones prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver in their animal models.  Although the mechanism is not fully understood, these ketones have the ability to alter lipid metabolism.

Raspberry ketones are involved with the protein hormone adiponectin.  Adiponectin increases cellular sensitivity to insulin which in turn increases glucose and fat metabolism generating more ATP to run metabolic pathways resulting in weight loss.  These keytones cause the fat within cells to be broken down more effectively making them readily available for energy production.  Raspberry keytones also produce a drop in blood triglyceride levels as well.

Siberian ginseng (from extract)

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is an adaptogen that contains more than 40 ginsenoside (saponins) compounds that are known to carry health benefits.  Each ginsenoside carries different pharmacological effects due to slight differences in their chemical structures.  The most commonly studied ginsenoside are Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, Rd and Rh1.  They have the ability to normalize body chemistry.  Ginsenosides help to cope with physical, emotional and environmental stress and they work  synergistically.

Most of the research on Siberian ginseng has been done in Russia as this botanical was used to promote physical stamina in Russian athletes.  One ginsenoside (Rg3) has been demonstrated to inhibit the differentiation of fat cells.  This effectively makes fat cells less able to complete the fat storage process.  Research done on obese leptin-deficient mice has demonstrated the anti-obesity effect of ginseng.  Recall that leptin is a hormone that decreases appetite thereby aiding in maintaining normal weight over long-term.  Leptin-deficient mice were administered oral ginseng at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 4 weeks and they demonstrated weight loss as well as a decrease in blood glucose levels relative to controls.  The researchers suggest that the anti-obesity effect of ginseng may be from inhibiting energy gain, normalizing hypothalamic neuropeptides (under leptin control) and serum molecules that are involved with control of weight gain.

In a another mouse study, researchers were able to demonstrate that ginseng had the ability to inhibit lipase activity.   Female mice were fed a fat-rich diet with or without saponins for an 8 week period.  This study revealed that saponins inhibited pancreatic lipase activity.  Not only was pancreatic lipase activity inhibited but plasma triacylglycerol levels dropped.  Long-term administration of saponins decreased tissue fat levels in animals that were fed fat-rich diets as compared to controls.  

The eleutherorsides in Siberian ginseng affect adrenal gland function by decreasing cortisol production.  Cortisol is a stress hormone.  This brings the adrenals glands back into balance and help them work more efficiently.  Siberian ginseng maintains healthy blood circulation increasing oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs increasing energy levels which helps to combat fatigue.  As such, Siberian ginseng is used by college students when preparing for exams as it enhances focus, concentration and memory.  It is also an immune booster.     

Kelp (from extract)

Kelp is a type of seaweed that contains powerful antioxidants and is rich in many minerals but mostly importantly organic iodine.  Iodine is important for the making of thyroid hormone so kelp boosts thyroid function.  Thyroid hormone is responsible regulating metabolic rates and cell proliferation.  Low-grade hypothyroidism may be elevated with organic iodine supplementation bringing thyroid function back to normal which aids in weight loss by speeding up metabolism.  The antioxidants in kelp help to free radicals at at bay protecting your DNA and metabolic pathways from oxidative stress.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin that is required for more than 100 different enzymes involved in protein metabolism.  It is also needed to make hemoglobin for red blood cells.  It is important for proper nervous system and immune system function and it is required for the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to niacin (vitamin B3).  Vitamin B6 helps to maintain blood sugar levels within normal range.  When your caloric intake is low as in between meals or perhaps you are on a diet, your body needs B6 to convert stored carbohydrate into glucose to maintain normal blood glucose levels.  B6 helps with weight loss by stimulating the thyroid which increases metabolic rate.  Vitamin B6 also alleviates cravings so it acts indirectly as an appetite suppressor.     

Apple Cider Vinegar powder

Apple cider vinegar contains a number of components including vitamins, minerals, acids and amino acids and,  in fact, this vinegar has been reported to contain more than 90 different molecules.  These include a number of carbolic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and ethyl acetates to mention a few.  Apple cider vinegar carries a number of health benefits including improving digestion, lowering cholesterol levels, reduce blood pressure, inhibit plaque formation, enhance memory, increase energy levels, increase a sense of well being and assist in weight loss. 

It has been suggested that apple cider vinegar may act as an appetite suppressant.  It is thought that pectin which is a water soluble fiber (found in apples) has the ability to absorb water and fill up your stomach which gives you a sense of fullness which makes you stop eating which may lead to weight loss over time.  It is also believed that apple cider vinegar decreases cravings for sweets and foods containing salt and fat.   There appears to be a direct relationship between an increase in acetic acid and satiety.   It has been suggested that apple cider vinegar increases metabolism and therefore will burn more calories. 

Apple cider vinegar promotes a sense of well being which is important for weight-loss.  It helps to release proteins during digestion of which some are used to make an essential amino acid which is required to make the neurotransmitter serotonin.  Serotonin is known as the “feel good” neurotransmitter that acts as a natural tranquilizer.  This calm state is less likely to create stress-induced eating helping you to maintain a normal weight level.Apple cider vinegar enhances digestion and decreases the amount of time that fats stay in the digestive tract.  The less time fats remain in the digestive tract (move through faster), less fat will be absorbed by the gut allowing for greater weight loss.

Chromium Picolinate

Chromium picolinate has long been known for it ability to enhance weight loss.  Chromium is carried into cells where it binds to chromium carriers to form a chromium-carrier complex.  When insulin binds an insulin-dependent glucose channel, the chromium-carrier complex migrates towards the glucose channel and aids in bringing more glucose into the cell, thereby, stabilizing blood glucose levels.  This increases glucose metabolism (glycolysis) and aerobic respiration producing more ATP to run metabolic pathways effectively increasing energy levels.

Research has demonstrated that chromium picolinate mobilizes the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by way of a cholesterol-dependent mechanism.  With an increase in GLUT4 at the plasma membrane, insulin-stimulated glucose transport is enhanced in the presence of chromium.  Chromium has been reported to increase membrane fluidity.  Researchers have observed a decrease in plasma membrane cholesterol in the presence of chromium.  Interestingly, when researchers added cholesterol back into the membrane this inhibited the beneficial effects of chromium on both GLUT4 mobilization and insulin-stimulated glucose transport.  The results reveal a novel mechanism by which chromium may enhance GLUT4 trafficking and insulin-stimulated glucose transport.  This is consistent with observations of improved glucose tolerance and decreased circulating cholesterol levels after chromium supplementation.

Piperine (95%)

Piperine is isolated from black pepper and it is known to increase the bioavailability of foods we eat as well as some ingredients in a wide range of supplements.  It also carries similar properties as capsaicin in terms of appetite suppression and weight loss.  It has been suggested that piperine could down-regulate certain genes that are responsible for the maturing of pre-adipocytes into new mature adipocytes (adipogenesis).  

If you have a diet that is high in fat, your fat cells will store the excess fat until they become full.  The full fat cells send out signals to immature fat cells called pre-adipocytes which will then begin to grow and mature.  This process is called adipogenesis and a few clinical trials indicate that piperine may be able to inhibit this process.  Researchers have demonstrated that piperine decreased the activity of transcriptional factors PPARy, SREBP1c and C/EBPB which are associated with fat cell differentiation.  It has also been observed that mRNA levels of PPARy target genes were down-regulated as well.   The researchers concluded that piperine could inhibit fat cell differentiation by down-regulating PPARy activity and suppressing PPARy expression.   This means that there no more cells (adipose cells) to store fat in so it will have to be burned.

Suggested Readings

Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism.


Study for the expression of Adiponectin, fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) genes and the methylation of SCD promoter in porcine muscle and fat tissues


Adiponectin in Cardiovascular Inflammation and Obesity


Effect of piperine in the regulation of obesity-induced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats


Vitamin B6 status improves in overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet rich in breakfast cereals, and may help in maintaining fat-free mass


The Weight Loss Benefits of Kelp


The Skinny On Siberian Ginseng


A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine


Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans


Cinnamon: Help for Insulin Resistance and Weight Loss


L-Tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress?


Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects